activated carbon manufacturing

ACTIVATED CARBON manufacturing

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Contact 9730175469 / 9730173696.

Here you will get basic information about activated carbon manufacturing. For more details, click here

Basic requirements for activated carbon manufacturing

• Land: 10000 sq. ft.
• Electricity: 50hp
• Manpower: 7 to 8

Raw material requirements

• Coconut shells
• Fuel

Machinery requirements

• Stationary kiln with combustion arrangements
• Cooler chambers
• Waste heat recovery system

Manufacturing process

General Details
Activated Charcoal is produced from Coconut Shell.
In India, traditionally, charcoal making is done in simple mud pits and bricklined kilns.
The Activated charcoal is manufactured by burnings shells of fully matured nuts in limited supply of air sufficient only for carbonisation, but not for complete destruction. The output of charcoal in the traditional pith method is just below 30% of the weight of the original shells.
In India, the average output in the traditional method has been found to be 35 kg of Activated charcoal from 1000 whole shells. In other words, about 30,000 whole shells yields one tonne of charcoal.
Sometimes, especially when the processing is defective, the output is still lower and nearly 40000 shells are required to produce one tonne of Activated charcoal.
To obtain good quality charcoal, fully dried, clean, mature shells should be used. Now several modern methods are in vogue for the production of charcoal.
Process for Activated charcoal is basically simple process consisting of burning the shells in a limited supply of air, so that the shells are only carbonised and not burnt to ash.
The tricky part of this operation is to set the optimum condition for carbonisation to the correct degree. The Activated charcoal manufactured by these methods is of inferior quality, containing a lot of impurities.
Moreover, the12 emission of a lot of smoke and flue gases during the process causes atmospheric pollution.

The most modern method for Activated Charcoal manufacture is to use waste heat recovery technology. In this process, the flue gases evolved during carbonisation are burned in a furnace, producing process heat for application in the Coconut Processing Industry.
Thus, besides producing good quality charcoal, the smoke problem is reduced considerably.

Drum method
Mild Steel Drum kiln is used for carbonization of shells. The drum consists of three sets of six 1“ dia holes provided at its bottom, middle and upper layers. A detachable chimney is also provided at the top of the drum. The manufacture of charcoal requires optimum carbonization of raw shells in a limited supply of air so that there is neither unburnt shell nor ash due to complete combustion. The steel drum is filled with raw shells after placing temporarily a 4 inch diameter wooden pole along the axis of the drum.
The wooden pole is then removed, leaving a hollow space which allows the flow of smoke during carbonization.
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To start carbonisation, a piece of burning rag is dropped to the bottom of the drum through the hollow space. When the fire is well underway, the cover with the chimney is placed into position and the upper and the middle sets of holes are closed.
Carbonisation which starts at the bottom progresses as it goes up as well as radially from the hollow space. When carbonisation is complete in 3 particular zones, a persistent glow can be seen in all the six holes of a set. When the bottom most set of holes indicate this situation, the middle set of holes is opened and the bottom set closed.
The progressive carbonization results in reduction in volume of contents and therefore, more shells are added from the top. When the middle region is carbonised well, the top set of holes is opened while the middle set is now closed.
A further addition of raw shells is done to fill the volume reduction to maximise capacity for burning.
When the top region is well carbonised, the top set of holes is also closed, resulting in complete stoppage of air inflow to the drum. The drum is then cooled for about 8 hours after which the product i.e. activated carbon is ready for discharge.

Source: http://krishna.nic.in/pdffiles/msme/chemical/activated%20charcoal.pdf

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